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Retrieved Chapter 22, "Head and facial trauma. This short article about medicine can be made longer. A subarachnoid hemorrhage is bleeding into the subarachnoid space the space between the arachnoid and the pia mater.
The blood irritates the brain and spinal cord , and causes symptoms like a very bad headache and a stiff neck. Subarachnoid hemorrhages can be caused by head injuries.
They can also happen when an aneurysm in one of the arachnoid layer's blood vessels bursts and starts bleeding. Subarachnoid hemorrhages are very dangerous.
About half of all people with subarachnoid hemorrhages die from them. Many of the people who survive have brain damage. From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Prehospital Emergency Care 10th ed. Prentice Hall. As blood accumulates, it starts to compress intracranial structures, which may impinge on the third cranial nerve ,  causing a fixed and dilated pupil on the side of the injury.
Other symptoms include severe headache ; weakness of the extremities on the opposite side from the lesion due to compression of the crossed pyramid pathways ; and vision loss, also on the opposite side, due to compression of the posterior cerebral artery.
In rare cases, small hematomas may be asymptomatic. If not treated promptly, epidural hematomas can cause tonsillar herniation , resulting in respiratory arrest.
The trigeminal nerve may be involved late in the process as the pons is compressed, but this is not an important presentation, because the person may already be dead by the time it occurs.
The most common cause of intracranial epidural hematoma is trauma , although spontaneous hemorrhages have been known to occur.
Epidural hematoma commonly results from a blow to the side of the head. The pterion region, which overlies the middle meningeal artery , is relatively weak and prone to injury.
Epidural hematoma is usually found on the same side of the brain that was impacted by the blow, but on very rare occasions it can be due to a contrecoup injury.
A "heat hematoma" is an epidural hematoma caused by severe thermal burn , causing contraction and exfoliation of the dura mater and exfoliate from the skull, in turn causing exudation of blood from the venous sinuses.
Epidural bleeding is often rapid because it is usually from arteries , which are high-pressure. In children, however, they occur with similar frequency in the occipital , frontal , and posterior fossa regions.
It also increases intracranial pressure , causing the brain to shift, lose blood supply, be crushed against the skull, or herniate. Larger hematomas cause more damage.
Epidural bleeds can quickly compress the brainstem , causing unconsciousness , abnormal posturing , and abnormal pupil responses to light. Diagnosis is typically by CT scan or MRI.
Epidural hematomas usually appear convex in shape because their expansion stops at the skull's sutures , where the dura mater is tightly attached to the skull.
Thus, they expand inward toward the brain rather than along the inside of the skull, as occurs in subdural hematomas. Most people also have a skull fracture.
Epidural hematomas may occur in combination with subdural hematomas, or either may occur alone. This lucid interval, which depends on the extent of the injury, is a key to diagnosing an epidural hematoma.
Daripada Wikipedia, ensiklopedia bebas. Kategori : Penyakit serebrovaskular Neurotrauma. Kategori tersembunyi: WPPER.
Online Etymology Dictionary. ICD - 10 : M General wounds and injuries. Abrasion Avulsion. Blood blister Coma blister Delayed blister Edema blister Fracture blister Friction blister Sucking blister.
Insect bite Spider bite Snakebite. Hand injury Head injury Chest trauma Abdominal trauma. Disorders of bleeding and clotting.
Clotting factors Antithrombin III deficiency Protein C deficiency Activated protein C resistance Protein S deficiency Factor V Leiden Prothrombin GA Platelets Sticky platelet syndrome Thrombocytosis Essential thrombocythemia DIC Purpura fulminans Antiphospholipid syndrome.